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雅思培训  
 
雅思阅读技巧攻略


       
                              
 
雅思阅读技巧            
(精品班)
                                 
一.雅思阅读猜词常用词缀
常用前缀(Prefixes):
  a-, an-  not, without, hackin    ultra-   beyond,  excessive, extreme
常用词根(Stems):
-anthro-, -anthropo-   man    -metr-, -meter-   measure  
-morph-       form     -pathy-       feeling, suffering
常用后缀(Suffixes):
---phobia  ,    ---mania  ,      scope,    ----cide
 
二.雅思阅读技巧篇
第1节   寻找3种语言重现
     同其他考试的阅读部分相比,雅思考试阅读部分最大的特点是文章篇幅长。考生要在
 一个小时内完成8种类型共计40道题目(这个要求近乎苛刻)。因此,阅读目的就从单纯的“信息获取’’转变成”寻找答案”。在这个过程中,原文涉及的大部分细节内容对于完成题目是无意义的,无需字斟句酌。只有在阅读中准确把握题干的关键词,才能区分哪些字句与题目(答题点)有关。
    所谓“关键词’’是指题干中的核心词或者决定答案性质或位置的词。典型的关键词是
句子的主干、人名、地名、时间、数字和生词。由于它们会在原文重现,因此产生了一种答
题方法:回原文找关键词。这往往给考生一种印象:只要在题干中划出关键词就一定能找到 原词。那么关键词一定会“原型”重现吗?请看下面这道判断题:
Example: While it is acknowledged for many years that an increasing number of animals are bound to become extinct,it is only recently that the problem has been addressed by politicians.
题目: We have known for along time that more species of animals will disappear.(判断题)
AA语言重现
    关键词在原文中以原词形式出现。AA语言重现在试题中占的比例最大,也是最简单的
一类考法。它以特殊关键词为主,包括人名、地名、时间、数字和生词。
Example: At precisely 4:20 am on Friday the 24th of September 1993 it was announced that Sydney had beaten five other competing cities around the world,and Australians everywhere,not only Sydney-siders,were justifiably proud of the result.But,if Sydney had lost the bid,would the taxpayers of NESW and of Australia have approved of government's spending millions of dollars in a failed and costly exercise?
题目:How many cities were competing in 1993 for the right to hold the 2000 Games? (简答题)
AB语言重现
定义:关键词A在原文中以同义词B的形式出现。AB语言重现题考察考生的单词量,主要凭理解力去定位。
Sea fishing grew rapidly in the decades after the Second World War.  Mechanisation increased the fishermen's catch in traditional grounds and then carried them to distant waters for more.
题目: Technological developments contributed to the higher fish catches after the Second World War. ( 判断题 )
关系重现
定义:所谓“关系重现”是把定位对象从“词”上升到“句子结构”,从而越过生词造成的阅读障碍。这是最关键的一类语言重现,是阅读技巧的完美体现。
例:Paper is also biodegradable, so it does not pose as much threat to the environment when it is discarded.
题目:Paper is less threatening to our environment when we throw it away because it is _________(填空题)
再比如,有一道简答题这样问:
Name TWO reasons for loss of farmland. Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS in both of your answers.
Although the world regards Asia as the focus of an economic and industrial miracle, without adequate supplies of food, Lampe says, chaos could easily result in many countries. And the impact will be felt widely throughout the region. In the 1990s alone, he says, the cities of Asia will be swollen by a further 500 million people______nearly equal to the population of the United States and European Community combined. "The only growing population in Asia is that of the poor. Prime productive land is being used for city expansion and building roads, while thousands of hectares are being taken out of production each year because of salinity and alkalinity." 
 
第2节发现文章中的信号词
一篇雅思阅读文章的主体是实词(名词、动词、形容词等),但一些表面上不起眼的虚词却往往成为答案的信号,我们称之为“信号词”,并建议读者给予它们特别的关注。
转折信号词
转折信号词的作用是否定前项肯定后项,使前后两句话的方向或意思相反。表示转折关系的信号词有:but,yet,however,whereas,in fact,on the contrary,conversely, on the other hand等。
公式:     A (正/负), but  B (负/正)
应用: 在阅读前半句时就可以预测后半句的大意,使接下来的阅读过程变成求证,如同把文
章读了两遍。另外,在有生词的情况下,只要理解了半句话的意思,就可以推测另一半句子的含义。例如1:
The second flaw in the reasoning of the WZCS ( The World Zoo Conservation Strategy )document is the naive faith it places in its 1,000 core zoos. One would assume that the caliber of these institutions would have been carefully examined, but it appears that the criterion for inclusion on this select list might merely be that the zoo is a member of a zoo federation or association. This might be a good starting point, working on the premise that members must meet certain standards, but again the facts don't support the theory.
题目  Zoos in the WZCS select list were carefully inspected.(判断题)
例如2:
The Aborigines made no use of Leptospermum or Dodonaea as food plants, yet the early settlers found that one could be used as a substitute for tea and the other for hops.
例如3:
From the mid-1960s when 'the Green revolution began, Asian food production doubled through a combination of high-yielding crops, expanded farming area and greater intensification. However, a mysterious threat is emerging in the noticeably declining yields of rice.
让步信号词
让步信号词的作用与转折信号词相同,让前后两句话的方向或意思相反。表示让步关系的信号词有:though,although,while,albeit,despite,in spite of,nevertheless,nonetheless等。
公式: although A (正/负), B (负/正)
应用  让步信号词具有同转折信号词相同的用法,可在阅读的过程中根据前半句的方向或意
思判断后半句的方向或意思。例如1:
Although the world regards Asia as the focus of an economic and industrial miracle,without adequate supplies of food,chaos could easily result.
分析  前半句是正面积极的意思,后半句话峰一转,表述负面消极的意思。
例如2:While ducks offer many advantages over hens, they must be given greater quantity of food.
分析  while是个含义丰富的连词,它在雅思阅读中最常见的意思是a,though”尽管,虽然”。
前半句说鸭子的好处,后半句说坏处。
试分析下列句子的前后方向:
1. While some students are able to supplement their funds with money from part-time or vacation work, such work is not always regular even when available.
2. For many previously inexperienced young women, the opportunity to gain financial independence, albeit limited and possibly temporary, has helped break down some of the taboos of their societies.
3. Despite the importance of tomorrow's test, Hans still decided to begin to study next morning.
4. This year's fall in profits was not unexpected. Nevertheless, it is very disappointing.
并列信号词
阅读中碰到复杂的大并列时,先看连词后面的内容。如果连词后面是动词,回上文找并列的动词;如果是形容词,就回上文找形容词性的并列成分,包括_ing分词和_ed分词。表示并列关系的信号词有:and,or,as well as,either----or; neither ---nor; not only---but also; rather than 等。
例1:The modern city consists of monstrous edifices and of narrow, dark streets full of petrol fumes and toxic gases, torn by the noise of the taxicabs lorries and buses, and thronged ceaselessly by great crowds.
例2:Many people stay at jobs they are too old for rather than meet possible rejection.
分析  rather than 的后项是动词meet,因此并列的前项也是动词,即stay.
特殊关键词
特殊关键词(人名、地名、时间、数字和生词)是最好的定位标志,多以AA的形式重现。   
比较信号词   
比较分为类比和对比两种。做题时要理解比较的双方(谁同谁比较)、比较点(比较什么)和比较的方向(结果怎么样)。
类比_______比较相同点,信号词有as…as,like,similar,parallel等。
1. These two detectives are as jealous as a pair of professional models.
2. Like his father President Bush is a republican.
3. Scribner and Cole regard classroom learning as parallel to learning in daily life.
对比_______比较不同点,信号词有more than, unlike, on the other hand, in contrast with  等。
1. It is far easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.
2. Unlike the minerals and oil used to make plastics and metals, trees are replaceable.
3. In contrast with your belief that we will fail, I am confident we will succeed.
另外,还可通过时间或地点的差异造成强对比。
1. Between 11 and l5 million salmon once spawned in the Columbia river system.Now there are only 3 million,
分析  两个时间副词体现出大马哈鱼现在和过去产卵情况大相径庭(时间对比)。如果这里有判断题The number of salmon in the Colombia river system has dropped dramatically.答案应选那一个?(True/False/Not Given)
2. Those Aborigines living in the dry inland areas were largely dependent for their vegetable foods on seed such as those of grasses, acacias and eucalypts. They ground these seeds between flat stones to make coarse flour. Tribes on the coast, and particularly in the vicinity of coastal rainforests, had a more varied vegetable diet with a higher proportion of fruits and tubers.
分析  既然内陆(dry inland area)土著人的蔬菜主要由植物种子构成,那么与之构成地点强烈对比的海岸地区(coast)土著人的蔬菜品种肯定不止于此。接下来的精读不过是求证的过程。
试分析下列句子中比较的双方、比较点和比较的方向:
1. As a general rule, international students should expect to spend at 1east as much on monthly living expenses during the summer as they do during the academic year.
2. "The extra money that tourism brings in more than makes up for the inconvenience of its citizens," said the chairman.
举例信号词
    举例信号词是对上文的解释说明,信号词前后的内容意思相同。可用做举例的信号词有:for example,for instance,like,such as等。英语里的破折号和冒号也有相同的作用。
In general, those Aborigines living in the dry inland areas were largely dependent for their vegetable foods on seed such as those of grasses, acacias and eucalypts.
2. When the car comes to a river, it turns amphibious two hydrojets power it along by
        blasting water under its body.
因果信号词
    大因果——表示原因或结果的成分都是句子的,叫大因果。
表示原因的信号词:because,in that,as,since 等。
1. I am in a slightly awkward position, in that my secretary is on holiday at the moment.
2. There are occasions when giving a gift surpasses spoken communication, since the message it offers can cut through barriers of language and cultural diversity.
表示结果的信号词: so (that), therefore, thus, hence, as a result, consequently 等。
1. The first of the new freedoms is in design. Powerful computer-aided design (CAD) systems can replace with a click of a computer mouse hours of laborious work done on thousands of drawing boards. So new products, no matter how complicated, can be developed much faster. For the first time, Boeing will not have to build a giant replica of its new airliner, the 777, to make sure all the bits fit together. Its CAD system will take care of that.
2. In a five-year period between 1983 and 1988 the community's female workforce grew by almost six million. As a result, 51% of all women aged 14 to 64 are now economically active in the labour market compared with 78% of men.
小因果——表示原因或结果的成分都是动词(词组)或介词(词组)的,叫小因果。
1. Increased air temperature has brought about higher sea levels.
分析  本句的意思是气温的增加导致海平面上升。bring about在这里表示前因后果关系,即“因为气温增加所以海平面上升”。
2. Necessity led to experimentation.
分析  需要导致实践,需要和实践之间是因果关系。
需要注意的是,thus等小词有时也可构成小因果关系。例如:
As our roads become more dangerous, more parents drive their children to more places, thus contributing to increased levels of danger for the remaining pedestrians.
试理解下列句子中的因果关系:
1.One of London Zoo's recent advertisements caused me great irritation.
2. The high cost of oil poses serious problems for industry.
3. The advertising campaign has contributed significantly to the success of the new car.
4. His illness resulted from eating contaminated food.
5. Cutting the hefty subsidies that go to the world's coal producers would help tilt the world's energy balance towards natural gas.
6. His success can be attributed to hard working.
7. The border incident precipitated the two countries into war.
8. I think a lack of confidence underlies his aggressive manner.
9. A higher price greatly affected demand for electricity.
10. Governments could take advantage of today's low oil prices to build up their own stocks.
11. Population aging is mainly due to a decline in fertility.
12. Elderly women outnumber elderly men because of gains in female longevity.
分析  除去第4,6,11, 12句,其余句子都是前因后果。
当然,除了上述7种信号词之外,各段首句也能传递很多信息,需引起注意。
三.     Sentence Completion句子填空题
题型概述: 句子填空题的特点和后面要讲的Summary填空相似,是用原文当中的细节信息把题目中的句子补充完整。
解决方案:
1。做题前要理解整个句子的含义并判断空格所缺词的词性,并确定关键词,然后回原文找重现。
2。如果题目中有特殊的关键词:人名、地名、时间、数字和生词,可以直接回原文找它们;如果没有类似信息,大多数情况下原文只会重现题干的含义。当题干很复杂或含有生词时,要留意其中是否存在可以利用的关系,例如比较关系和因果关系。
3。找到关键词的语言重现后精读原文,并找到题目需要的词语作为答案。个别时候可能原文中的单词或结构做出部分改动,或用自己的语言表述。另外需注意语态、时态、名词的单复数问题。
注意 1所填答案必须符合语法。2绝大多数的答案来自原文原词。3答案字数不会很长。
4.答案绝大多数是名词,名词短语,形容词(短语)和副词(短语)。
5.要特别注意顺序性。
Example:
"It is better to give than to receive"; "Never look a gift horse in the mouth"; "Beware of Greeks (ancient, of course) bearing gifts". Gifts are a fundamental element of culture and our lives as social creatures. They are also an important part of our business relationships.
2  There are occasions when giving a gift surpasses spoken communication, since the message it offers can cut through barriers of language and cultural diversity. Present a simple gift to your host in a foreign country and the chances are he or she will understand you perfectly, though you may not understand a single word of each other's languages. Its can convey a wealth of meaning about your appreciation of their hospitality and the importance you place upon the relationship. Combine the act of giving with some knowledge of and sensitivity to the culture of the recipient and you have an invaluable chance to earn respect and lay the foundations of a durable and mutually beneficial business relationship.
3   For all countries, take account of climate, especially in regard to clothing. Some gifts can be ruined by extremely hot or humid climates, possibly causing their receiver considerable anguish. Consider the kinds of products that are abundant in the country concerned and try for something that is uncommon there. Think about the level of language skills: a book with hundreds of pages of English text may be at best useless, at worst embarrassing, to a person with limited English. Inform yourself as much as possible about local customs, rules and etiquette, especially to do with wrapping, presenting, superstitions, taboos and, importantly, customs and quarantine regulations. The following is a brief account of the etiquette of gift-giving in some countries of Asia and the Middle East.
Questions 1-4
Statements 1-4 are based on the Reading Passage above. Complete the statements
by using ONE word from the Reading Passage for each answer.
1.  Differences in culture and _______ can be overcome by gifts.
2.  Overseas visitors are advised to give gifts to their ________.
3.  _________should be considered when giving gifts such as thick clothing.
To present a gift of chocolates in a tropical country might create ________.
 
四.      判断题 True/False/Not Given
解题步骤:
Step 1:定位,找出题目在原文中的出处。
1.找出题目中的关键词,最好先定位到原文中的一个段落。
将题目中的关键词与原文各段落的小标题或每段话的第一句相对照。有些题目能先定位到原文中的一个段落,这必将大大加快解题时间,并提高准确率。但并不是每个题目都能先定位到原文中的一个段落的。
2.从头到尾快速阅读该段落,根据题目中的其它关键词,在原文中找出与题目相关的一句话或几句话。
      确定一个段落后,答案在该段落中的具体位置是未知的。所以,需要从头到尾快速阅读该段落,找出该段落中与题目相关的一句话或几句话,通常是一句话。
3.仔细阅读这一句话或几句话,根据第二大步中的原则和规律,确定正确答案。
4.要注意顺序性,即题目的顺序和原文的顺序基本一致。
     题目是有顺序性的。第一题的答案应在文章的前部,第二题的答案应在第一题的答案之后。这个规律也有助于同学们确定答案的位置。
Step2:根据下列原则和规律,确定正确答案
     笔者尽可能将规律总结得详细些,使同学们能够对号入座,加快解题的速度和准确率。但请同学们不要僵化理解。
                       1.   True
Situation 1.  题目是原文的同义词
例1
原文:Few are more than five years old.
译文:很少有超过五年的。
题目:Most are less than five years old.
译文:大多数都小于五年。
解释:题目与原文是同义结构,所以答案应为True。
例2
原文:Frogs are losing the ecological battle for survival,and biologists are at a loss to explain
their demise.
译文:青蛙失去了生存下来的生态竞争能力,生物学家不能解释它们的死亡。
题目:Biologists are unable to explain why frogs are dying.
译文:生物学家不能解释为什么青蛙死亡。
例3
原文:Women could not take part and were forbidden,on pain of death,even to attend the
  Games.
译文:妇女不能参加甚至被禁止出席这个运动会。
题目:The spectators,as well as the participants, of the ancient Olympics were male.
译文:古代奥运会的观众和参加者都是男的。
Situation 2  题目是根据原文中的几句话推断或归纳而成。
例1
原文:Compare our admission inclusive fares and see how much you save.Cheapest is not the best and value for money is guaranteed.If you compare our bargain Daybreak fares beware _____ most of our competitors do not offer an all inclusive fare.
译文:比较我们包含的费用会看到你省了很多钱。最便宜的不是最好的。如果你比较我们的价格,会发现绝大多数的竞争对手不提供一揽子费用。
题目:Daybreak fares are more expensive than most of their competitors.
译文:Daybreak的费用比绝大多数的竞争对手都昂贵。
例2
原文:For example,it has been demonstrated that rapid response leads to a greater likelihood of arrest only if responses are in the order of l-2 minutes after a call is received by the police.When response times increase to 3-4 minutes——still quite a rapid response——the likelihood of an arrest is substantially reduced.
译文:例如,只有反应时间在警察接到电话之后l—2分钟,快速反应才会使抓住罪犯的可能性更大。当反应时间增加到3—4分钟,仍然是非常快的反应,抓住罪犯的可能性就实质性地降低。
题目:A response delay of l一2 minutes may have substantial influence on whether or not a suspected criminal is caught.
译文:l—2分钟的反应延迟会对嫌疑犯是否被抓住产生实质性的影响。
                      2.  False
Situation 1: 题目与原文直接相反。通常用反义词,not加同义词及反义结构。
例1
原文:A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies.
译文:当最后一个个体死亡时,一个物种就灭亡了。
题目:A species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists.
译文:当只有一个个体存活时,一个物种就被说是灭亡了。
例2
原文:It has been successfully used in the United States to provide input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia's forests.
译文:在美国它已经成功地用于支持资源开发和帮助野生生命研究管理者。现在,在使用它对澳大利亚的森林中的野生生物管理上有巨大的潜力。
题目:PVA has been used in Australia for many years.
译文:PVA已经在澳大利亚使用多年了。
例3
原文:You may qualify for the Common Interest Group system,if you are one of at least ten adults who are traveling together.
译文:如果你是至少10个一起旅行的成人中的一个,你可能会适合Common Interest Group模式。
题目:The Common Interest Group scheme does not apply if there are 11 adults in the group.
译文:如果一个组里有11个成人,Common Interest Group 模式就不适用。
Situation 2: 原文是多个条件并列,题目是其中一个条件(出现must或only)。
原文是两个或多个情形 (通常是两种情形)都可以,常有both...and、and、or、及also等词。题目是“必须”或“只有”其中一个情况,常有must及only等词。
例1
原文:Booking in advance is strongly recommended as a11 Daybreak tours are subject to demand.Subject to availability,stand-by tickets can be purchased from the driver.
译文:提前预定是强烈建议的,因为所有的Daybreak旅行都是由需求决定的。如果还有票的话,可直接向司机购买。
题目:Tickets must be bought in advance from an authorized Daybreak agent.
译文:票必须提前从一个认证的代理处购买。
例2
原文:Since the Winter Games began,55 out of 56 gold medals in the men's Nordic skiing events have been won by competitors from Scandinavia or the former Soviet Union.
译文:自从冬奥会开始,在男子越野滑雪项目中的56块中的55块金牌被来自北欧和前苏联的选手获得。
题目:Only Scandinavians have won gold medals in the men's winter Olympics.
译文:只有北欧人获得了冬运会男子越野滑雪项目中的金牌。
例3
原文:Apart from the Second World War period the Winter Olympics were held every four years,a few months before the summer Olympics.But in 1986 the IOC changed the schedule so that the summer and winter games would be held in different years.Thus,for the only time in history,the Lillehammer (Norway) Games took place just two years after the previous Winter Olympics which were held in Alvertville,France.
题目:One Winter Olympics has succeeded  another every four years since 1924 with a break only for the Second World War.
Situation 3: 原文为人们对某样事物的理论或感觉,题目则强调是客观事实或已被证明。
原文强调是一种“理论”或“感觉”,常有feel、consider及theory等词。题目强调是一种“事实”,常有fact及prove等词。
例1
原文:But generally winter sports were felt to be too specialized.
题目:The Antwerp Games proved that winter sports were too specialized.
例2
原文:Another theory is that worldwide temperature increases are upsetting the breeding cycles of frogs.
题目:It is a fact that frogs’ breeding cycles are upset by worldwide increases in temperature.
Situation 4: 原文和题目中使用了表示不同范围,频率,可能性的词。
原文中常用many (很多)、sometimes (有时)及unlikely (不太可能)等词。题目中常用all (全部)、usually (通常)、always (总是)及impossible (完全不可能)等词。
例1 
原文:Frogs are sometimes poisonous.
题目:Frogs are usually poisonous.
例2
原文:Without a qualification from a reputable school or university,it is unlikely to find a good job.
题目:It is impossible to get a good job without a qualification from a respected institution.
Situation 5: 原文中包含条件状语,题目中去掉条件成分。
          原文中包含条件状语,如if、unless或if not,也可能是用介词短语表示条件状语,如in、with、but for 或 except for。题目中去掉了这些表示条件状语的成分。这时,答案应:False。例1
原文:The Internet has often been criticized by the media as a hazardous tool in the hands of young computer users.
题目:The media has often criticized the Internet because it is dangerous.   
3.  Not Given
Situation 1:题目中的某些内容在原文中没有提及。
           题目中的某些内容在原文中找不到依据。
Situation 2:题目中涉及的范围小于原文涉及的范围,也就是更具体。
原文涉及一个较大范围的范畴,而题目是一个具体的概念。也就是说,题目中涉及
的范围比原文要小。
例1
原文:Our computer club provides printer.
题目:Our computer club provides color printer.
例2
原文:Tourists in Cyprus come mainly from Europe.
题目:Tourists in Cyprus come mainly from the UK.
Situation 3: 原文是某人的目标,目的,想法,保证,发誓等,题目是事实。
原文中常用aim (目的)、purpose (目的)、promise (保证)、swear (发誓)及vow (发誓)等词。题目中用实意动词。
例l
原文:He vowed he would never come back.
题目:He never came back.
例2
原文:His aim was to bring together,once every four years,athletes from all countries on the
friendly fields of amateur sport.
题目:Only amateur athletes are allowed to compete in the modern Olympics.
Situation 4:  题目中有比较级,原文中没有比较。
例1
原文:In Sydney,a vast array of ethnic and local restaurants can be found to suit a11 palates and pockets.
译文:在悉尼,有各种各样的餐馆。
题目:There is now a greater variety of restaurants to choose from in Sydney than in the past.
译文:现在有更多种类的餐馆可供选择。
Notice:  
1.一定要依据原文,不能凭借自己的知识。
    原文是判断答案的惟一根据。所以,无论你对文章的内容或背景多么的熟悉,或者你的知识面是多么的丰富,都不能凭借自己的知识来确定答案。即使题目中说“地球是正方形的”。如果文章中没说,你只能答Not Give,不能答False。
例1
原文:His aim was to bring together,once every four years,athletes from a11 countries on the friendly fields of amateur sport.
译文:他的目的是把各国的运动员每四年一次聚集到友好的业余运动的赛场上。
题目:Only amateur athletes are allowed to compete in the modern Olympics.
2.可以根据原文做适当的推断,但不能做无根据的自行推理或过度推断。
3.要注意题目要求答什么。
4.题目中若出现must、only、all及always,答案一般不会是True。
5.要相信自己己的第一感觉,不要轻易改答案。
在考试中,除非有特别强的理由,否则不要轻易改答案,人的第一感觉往往是正
确的。很多同学都将正确的答案改错了。
6.要注意上述规律和方法的运用,不要钻牛角尖。
这种题型本身有一定的缺陷,即不严密。所以,上述规律和方法若能理解就最好,如不能理解,就记住它们,考试时,照着做就可以了,这些规律都经过实践的检验。
五. Diagram/Flowchart/Table Completion图表填空题
题型概述: 图表题也是一类简单题型。它最大的特点是图表和题目都遵从某种顺序。
解决方案:   
1. 图表题的答案也是原文中的细节信息。
2.找出题目中的关键词。
3. 根据图表结构(框架层次)和内部关系(因果、递进、时间或空间变化等)逐层回原文找关键词的对应词(多是AA重现)。
注意:
1.注意字母大小写、单复数和数字的单位以及是否有字数的限制 (如果有例词,一定同例词保持一致)。
2.绝大多数的答案是原文原词,而且是原文中连续的几个词。
3. 要注意顺序性,即题目的顺序和原文的顺序基本一致。
  六.  Summary 填空题
题型概述:雅思的填空题令很多考生头痛。它很像我们熟悉的完型填空题,共有两种考法:
1.概括原文多个段落,提供备选项(少见)。
2.改写部分原文(2—3段),没有备选项(多见)。
基本上,第一类难度较大,因为需要在全文寻找答案,且备选项大都是原文的AB重现。
解决方案
SUMMARY填空题是原文的改写或概括,句子之间相互联系。所以要放慢速度把原文和题目的句子仔细做比较。可按以下步骤来做:
精读SUMMARY文字的首句,如果发现特殊关键词(人名、地名、时间、数字和生词),即可定位,开始浏览;如果首句含糊,就读到第一个空格,判断空格的词性(名词、动词、形容词、副词等),并在空格前后确定关键词。
回原文查找关键词可能出现的3种语言重现(AA,AB或关系重现)。建议在语言重现的上下文逐句精读,不要跳读。
3  发现语言重现,精读上下文。已给备选项的要从选项里找出所有同词性元素,再根据词义筛选答案。例如,如果空格缺少动词,先看备选项中有哪些动词,再看谁与原文意思相符。没有备选项的要回原文对应处选词,必要时调整答案的形式。如:主动语态变被动语态,单数变复数等。
另外还有几点需注意:
1 回原文定位SUMMARY的起始位置是做好填空题的关键:SUMMARY可能是任何一个段落的概括,即可能出现在文章的开头、中间或结尾,在浏览时要准确定位。
2 多数出现SUMMARY的段落不设置其他题型。SUMMARY只在很少的情况下与其他题型交叉或重叠。
3  SUMMARY是对原文的改写,应特别留意AB语言重现。
4  填空题的答案多为生词的AA重现。
5  从选项中选词,答案与原文的六大对应关系。
(1)原文原词 (2)词性变化;原文为necessary, 是形容词,选项为necessity.
(3)语态变化: 主动变被动 (4)图表:如果原文中有图表,一般有一题的答案来自图表。
(5)同义词:原文为tight,选项为restricted, 是同义词. (6) 归纳总结出答案。
6. 如果要求自己写词,答案绝大部分是原文原词,少部分是对原文原词的改写。
 
七.  选择题
单选题
解题步骤及应试技巧
第一步快速浏览文章,把握文章的体裁、结构、主题、特点
  首先,对不同文章结构的把握有助于采用不同的解题策略。如果是议论文或段落紧凑的文章,那么每段的第l句话都是必读的,最后一句最好也看看,特别是最后一段。根据这些句子的主、谓语和重要实义词确定文章的主题与基调。如果是说明文或文章段落较多、每段都较短,只需确定文章所谈主题,然后直接进入第二步(读题)。
  其次,通过快速浏览,找一些有用的信号词,如时间、人名、地名、数字、关联词、特殊印刷体等,以提高解题时的速度。浏览时对于文章中出现的列举结构、比较结构、转折关系、因果关系以及特殊句型如倒装、强调、虚拟等要予以特别注意。
  第二步读题确定题目中的信息词,主要是名词、动词,有时是人名、地名、时间、数字等确定词。
 第三步查找到信息源,解题。快速到文章中查找到含信息词(或其同义词)的地方,仔细阅读上下文,根据主题句、核心词、同义替换、一定高度的概括性等原则确定正确答案。如果是观点态度题,主要通过把握主旨及词汇的感情色彩来判断。
注意:
1.正确的答案常常是原文相关词的改写。
2.有些题目比较简单,可以直接选择。对于难题,可以用排除法确定正确答案。
3.要注意顺序性,即题目的顺序和原文的顺序基本一致。
4.如果一个选项合乎题意,还要看其它选项中是否有both-----and, all of the above 的字样。
5.注意题干中是否有not , except 字样。
 
The average air temperature at the surface of the earth has risen this century, as has the temperature of ocean surface waters. Because water expands as it heats, a warmer ocean means higher sea levels. We cannot say definitely that the temperature rises are due to the greenhouse effect; the heating may be part of a "natural" variability over a long time-scale that we have not yet recognized in our short 100 years of recording. However, assuming the build up of greenhouse gases is responsible, and that the warming will continue, scientists-and inhabitants of low-lying coastal areas--would like to know the extent of future sea level rises.
Calculating this is not easy. Models used for the purpose have treated the ocean as passive, stationary and one-dimensional. Scientists have assumed that heat simply diffused into the sea from the atmosphere. Using basic physical laws, they then predict how much a known volume of water would expand for a given increase in temperature. But the oceans are not one-dimensional, and recent work by oceanographers, using a new model which takes into account a number of subtle facets of the sea-including vast and complex ocean currents-suggests that the rise in sea level may be less than some earlier estimates had predicted.
(1) Scientists do not know for sure why the air and surface of ocean temperatures are rising because ...
A  there is too much variability.
B  there is not enough variability.
C  they have not been recording these temperatures for enough time.
D  the changes have only been noticed for 100 years.
(2) New research leads scientists to believe that ...
A  the oceans are less complex.
B  the oceans are more complex.
C  the oceans will rise more than expected.
D  the oceans will rise less than expected.
方案二:注意选项中的关键词。(在提干意思含糊,无法定位时,要借助备选项确定关键词)
3. Even though earthquake prone countries spend enormous human and financial resources on seismographic measurement, as a means of predicting earthquakes, there is a danger in paying too much heed to seemingly high risk zones and erecting less stable buildings solely because of their being in a low risk zone. Prior to the earthquake, Kobe was not regarded as at serious risk, but after the disaster, investigation of the damage revealed that nearly all deaths occurred in small buildings that shattered rather than twisted when stressed. Coup/ed with the problem of soft soils, the buildings had little firm support and many crumb/ed. If countries wish to withstand the devastating forces of substantial earthquakes and reduce death, injury and property damage, it is important to design and construct buildings that are earthquake resistant, as well as monitor seismic forces.
(1) It is now believed that ...
A  low-risk zones are relatively safe.
B  high-risk zones are more dangerous than low-risk zones.
C  low-risk zones may in fact be very dangerous due to poorly constructed buildings.
D  high-risk zones have stable buildings.
(2) Soft soils ...
A  together with poorly constructed buildings and being in high-risk zones greatly contribute to earthquakes devastation.
B  cause earthquakes.
C  cause buildings to twist rather than shatter.
D  crumble buildings.
(3) Seismologists ...
A  can predict the potential destruction of a city by an earthquake.
B  can not predict where an earthquake may occur .
C  had been investigating Kobe’s potential for an earthquake and had warmed the inhabitants.
D  could work with other professionals to understand and try to minimize the level of death and injury caused by major earthquakes.
方案三
出现绝对词的选系项90%不是答案。All, most, only,  always, usually, invariably, greatly, entirely, largely等。
方案四
出现比较级的选项90%都不是答案。比较级有三要素:比较双方,比较点和比较方向。三项里任何一方与原文不符都不能成为答案。
2. 多选题 (多选题目要求里都会说明需要选择答案的个数)
解决方案: 阅读时留意文章中的并列,时间空间顺序,因果关系,递进关系。
4  Computerised data storage and electronic mail were to have heralded the paperless office. But, contrary to expectations, paper consumption throughout the world shows no sign of abating. In fact, consumption, especially of printing and writing papers, continues to increase. World demand for paper and board is now expected to grow faster than the general economic growth in the next 15 years. Strong demand will be underpinned by the growing industrialization of South-East Asia, the reemergence of paper packaging, greater use of facsimile machines and photocopiers, and the popularity of direct-mail advertising. It is possible that by 2007, world paper and board demand will reach 455 million tones, compared with 241 million tones in 1991.
QUESTION 1-4
Below is a list of possible factors, A-G, which will influence the amount of paper being used in the future. From the list, choose FOUR factors which are mentioned in the Paragraph above. Write your answers A-G, in the spaces on the answer sheet.
           list of factors
A   more people read newspapers
B   increased use of paper bags
C   increased book production for education
D   wider use of sign post advertising
E   increased use of fax machines
F   wider use of leaflet advertising
G   greater use of duplicating machines  
八.                      Headings标题选择题
解题步骤:
(1) 先将例子所在的选项从选项列表中划去,同时,不读例子所在的段落。
      每个选项最多只能用一次,也就是说,两个段落的小标题不可能是一个选项。这是因为不同段落的主旨肯定是不同的,原文将他们分为不同的段落,就是要分别说不同的内容。如果两段的主旨相同,即表达的中心思想一致,应该将它们合为一段,是没有必要分为两段的。有时,这类题目的要求中有这样一句话:You may use any heading more than once (你可以使用任何小标题超过一次)。这句话纯属误导,也就是说,即使题目的要求中有这句话或类似的话,任何选项也不可能被使用两次以上。
       既然每个选项最多只能用一次,所以例子所在的段落已经使用的选项是不会被其它段落使用的,将其划去,以免被其它的段落误选。而且在选其它段落的答案时,可以不看该选项,节省时间。例子所在的段落已经给出了小标题,所以不必阅读该段落了,以免浪费时间,直接从下一段读起。
(2) 不要先看选项,而要从文章入手,读一段话,做一道题。
  正确的方法是:
       先不要看选项,而要先读文章。读文章的时候,不要一下把文章全读完,而是读一段话,做一道题。假如原文的第一段已作为例子给出,那么,先读第二段,然后到选项列表中找该段话的小标题。然后再读第三段,同样处理,直至完成。这样做,不仅速度快,而且准确率高。
(3) 读每段话时,要抓住该段话的主题句和核心词汇。正确答案常常是主题句的改写。
      读每段话时,并不是该段话全要仔细阅读。这样,既浪费时间,也不容易抓住重
  点。应该抓住该段话的主题句。
      先读该段话的第一句,然后,与选项列表中的各选项一一对应,确定正确答案,正确选项一般是该句话的改写。如果答案不能确定,应再读该段话的第二句,然后,与选项列表中的各选项一一对应。如果答案还是不能确定,应再读该段话的最后一句,再与选项列表中的各选项一一对应。如果还是找不着正确的答案,则就需要阅读整段话了。
      根据统计数据,段落的主题句在第一句的可能性超过50%,段落的主题句在第二句的可能性为20%,段落的主题句在最后一句的可能性超过20%。也就  是说,按照上述方法做这种题型,读完该段话的第一句,就能在选项列表中找出该段话的Heading,这种可能性超过50%。整段话都需要阅读的可能性不到10%。   
      这个做题方法不仅有统计数据的体据,还有理论的基础。英文的段落展开方法比较简单,主要有两种:演绎法(Deductive Method)及归纳法(Inductive Method)。演绎法指的是由观点到例子及论据,所以主题句在该段话的第一句,但有时,第一句是个过渡性或描述性的句子,主题句有可能放在该段话的第二句,总之,主题句在第一句或第二句,都是演绎法。归纳法是指由例子及论据到观点,所以主题句在该段话的最后一句。70%左右的段落是用演绎法写的,而且其中绝大部分主题句在第一句。20%左右的段落是用归纳法写的。
(4)某段话的答案确定后,将它的选项从选项列表中划去。
  我们在前面讲过,每个选项最多只能用一次,也就是说,不可能两个段落的小标题是一个选项。所以,一段话的答案确定后,将它的选项从选项列表中划去,以免被误选为其它段落的小标题。而且在选其它段落的答案时,可以不看该选项,节省时间。
Notice: (1) 如果答案不确定,先将可能正确的选项全部选出。
        如果一个段落的答案不确定,应将它们先都选出来,写在题目的旁边,再往下做。这样做的好处是,下面某一段的答案确定后,便能推断出上面段落的答案来。因为,我们在前面讲过,每个选项最多只能用一次,也就是说,不可能两个段落的小标题是一个选项。例如:第二段的答案可能是B或D,但你能够确定第四段的答案是D,所以,第二段的答案就是B了。即使第二段后面各段落的Heading都不是B或D,最后在确定第二段的Heading时,也是从B和D中选择一个。
(2)干扰选项的特点是:段落中未展开说明的细节。
  作为干扰选项出现的常常是段落中提到的细节,但我们要找的是段落的主旨。这更说明做这种题要抓住段落的主题句,而不是整个段落全看。否则,特别容易受到干扰选项的误导。
(3) 如果主题句比较复杂(如复合句),应重点看主句部分。
    有时主题句是比较复杂的复合句,如果理解有困难,应集中精力看主句部分,正
    确答案应来自主句。
  主题句中,常常有如下的句式:
   Although/While/Despite/Despite the fact..·,·..中文意思是:“虽然……,但是
    ……”。前面是个让步状语从句,后面是主句,要说明的观点在主句中。
例: 某段话的主题句为:
  However,despite the importance of the recruitment decision and the range of sophisticated and more objective selection techniques available,including the use of psychometric tests, assessment centres etc.,many organisations are still prepared to make    this decision on the basis of a single 30 to 45 minutes unstructured interview.
译文:虽然招收新人的决定很重要而且有很多成熟的和更客观的选择技巧,很多单位仍然准备基于30到45分钟的无组织的面试来做出决定。
讲解:这句比较复杂,不好理解。应重点看主句部分many organisations are still prepared
         to make this decision on the basis of a single 30 to 45 minutes unstructured interview。
正确答案为:The unstructured interview and its validity。
(4) 如果主题句中有show 和 suggest 等词,应重点看其后的宾语从句。
    show、suggest是“表明”、“说明”的意思,其后的宾语从句往往是要说明的观点,是该段话的主旨。
  例:某段话的主题句为:
  Despite the significant increase in the number of women with dependent children who are in the paid workforce,Australian research studies over the last 15 years are consistent in showing that divisions of labour for family work are very rigid indeed (Watson l991).
   译文:虽然有孩子的妇女参加工作的数目显著上升,但过去15年澳大利亚的研究一致表明,家庭工作的劳动分工实际上是非常固定的。
  讲解:这句话比较复杂,不好理解。按照前面的注意事项3,应重点看主句部分。主句部分中,有show 的类似结构:showing that,所以,其后的宾语从句是要说明的观点,是该段话的主旨。正确答案应是 divisions of labour for family work are very rigid indeed的改写。其中,关键词是rigid,在本句中的意思是固定不变的。正确答案为:The unchanged role of
  the female parent。
 (5) 如果主题句是not only...,.but also 句型,应重点看 but also后面的部分。not only...but also 的意思是“不仅……而且……”,常用来承上启下。not only后面的部分是“承上”,即上一段的主旨,but also后面的部分是“启下”,即本段话的主旨。所以,应重点看but also后面的部分。 
例:某段话的主题句为:
      Diversity exists not only between cultures,but also within a single culture.
  译文:多样性不仅存在于不同的文化之间,而且还存在于同一文化之中。
  讲解:本句用来承上启下。not only后面的部分是“承上”,即上一段的主旨是:多样
  性存在于不同的文化之间,but also后面的部分是“启下”,即本段话的主旨是:多样
  性存在于同一文化之中。正确选项为:Variation within cultures。
(6) 问句不会是主题句
      问句通常作为引题,是过渡性的句子。所以,在做Headings题时,如果某个段落的第一句、第二句或最后一句是问句,应该忽略,不用阅读,肯定不是主题句。圈某段话的第一句为:
     Should police assume all the responsibility for ensuring a rapid response?
  译文:警察应该承担保证快速反应的全部责任吗?
  讲解:此句虽然是该段话的第一句,但因为是问句,所以不用看,肯定不是主题句,直
  接看该段话的第二句即可。
(7) 举例子的句子不会是主题句
      英文文章讲究以理服人,经常用例证法,即举个例子来论述自己的观点。所以,在阅读文章中,经常有以For example开始的句子。请同学们注意,举例子的句子是用来解释说明观点的,它不会是段落的主题句。所以,在做Headings题时,如果某个段落的第一句、第二句或最后一句是举例子的句子,应该忽略,不用阅读,肯定不是主题句。
  例:For example,it has been demonstrated that rapid response leads to a greater likelihood of arrest only if responses are in the order of l-2 minutes after a call is received by the police.
译文:例如,只有在警察接到电话1-2分钟之后做出的快速反应才会提供抓住罪犯的更大可能性。
讲解:这是一个以For example开始的举例子的句子,所以不用看,肯定不是主题句。
(8)正确答案应是主题句的改写,与主题句特别一致的选项应引起怀疑。
 正确答案应是主题句的改写,所以与主题句中的某些词特别一致的选项应不是正确答案。
  例;某段话的第一句(主题句)为:
     Overall,female students outnumbered male students in the survey.
  有一个选项为:L.Female Students
     原句的意思是:在调查中,女学生的数目超过男学生的数目。上述选项只提到了女学生,所以,它不对。应用本条规律,你会发现它与主题句中的词female students一模一样,所以也应该怀疑它不是正确选项。正确选项为:Gender。Gender的意思是“性别”。在主题句中并没有这个词,可见正确答案应是主题句的改写。
  例:某段话的第一句(主题句)为:
  While student visa holders took either 10—29 week or 40 week courses,most students on working holiday and tourist visas took courses Of less than 10 weeks,or from 10 to 19 weeks in length.
 容易误选的选项为:
    H.Visas              正确选项为:B.Length of courses
 (9) 如果需要阅读整个段落,应重点阅读该段落中的重点词句
  并不是每个段落都有主题句,有10%左右的Headings是必须阅读整段才能找出的。受英语水平的限制,如果阅读整个段落有困难,应重点阅读段落中的如下内容:
    (1)反复出现的词   (2)括号里的词     (3)引号里的词   (4)黑体字  (5)斜体字
 
九. Matching配对题
题型概述   
配对题的类型众多,大致可分为关系配对和从属配对。
关系配对题
关系配对按原文给出的某种关系将题目中的两组信息联系起来,包括因果关系、正反比关系。
1. 因果关系配对题
  因果关系配对题是指,根据原文内容在备选项中找出题干的结果或原因。我们曾多次强调因果关系在雅思阅读中的重要性,在回原文寻找关键词语言重现的时候应该更加关注字里行间表示因果关系的小词,尤其是由动词或介词表达的小因果关系。
解题步骤:
1.不用先把题目从头到尾看一遍,而应该一道题一道题地做下去。
2.先找题目中的关键词(信息词),再到原文中去找它的对应词。
3.仔细阅读关键词所在的句子,确定正确的答案。
4.做题时,要特别注意原文中的因果关系。
1. The reduction in children's freedom may also contribute to a weakening of the sense of local community. As fewer children and adults use the streets as pedestrians, these streets become less sociable places. There is less opportunity for children and adults to have the spontaneous exchanges that help to engender a feeling of community. This in itself may exacerbate fears associated with assault and molestation of children, because there are fewer adults available who know their neighbours' children, and who can look out for their safety.
 
2. The extra traffic involved in transporting children results in increased traffic congestion, pollution and accident risk. As our roads become more dangerous, more parents drive their children to more places, thus contributing to increased levels of danger for the remaining pedestrians. Anyone who has experienced either the reduced volume of traffic in peak hour during school holidays, or the traffic jams near schools at the end of a school day, will not need convincing about these points. Thus, there are also important environmental implications of children's loss of freedom.
Questions 1-5
In the paragraphs above, there are FIVE problems stated. These problems, numbered as questions 1-5, are listed below. Each of these problems has a cause, listed A-G. Find the correct cause for each of the problems and write the corresponding letter A-G, in the spaces numbered 1-5 on the answer sheet.
There are more causes than problems so you will not use all of them and you may use any cause more than once.
    
   problems                               causes
1. low sense of community feeling            A  few adults know local children
2. streets become less sociable             B  fewer people use the streets
3. fewer chances for meeting friends        C  increased pollution
4. fears of danger for children             D  streets are less friendly
5. higher accident risk          E  less traffic in school holidays
                                 F  reduced freedom for children
                                 G  more children driven to school
2.  正反比关系配对题
正反比关系配对题,是依据原文内容判断题干同选项之间为正比关系、反比关系或无关系。做这类题目时,除了留意语言重现,还要注意表示数量变化的词汇。
                      Disappearing Fish
Sea fishing grew rapidly in the decades after the Second World War. Mechanisation increased the fishermen's catch in traditional grounds and then carried them to distant waters for more. After the world catch had tripled to over 60 million tones in only 20 years, fishing developed more slowly in the 1970s and 1980s, like the rest of the oil-shocked world economy. In 1989, when the sea catch rose above 86 million tones, the growth stopped.
2   In 1990 and 1991, the two most recent years for which the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has figures, the world catch began to shrink. It has not been a dramatic fall--only a few percent overall. But experts at the FAO, in common with many fisheries scientists, now believe that the limit to sustainable catches of wild fish was exceeded decades earlier. In more and more waters, too few fish have been left in the sea to maintain levels needed for spawning. Thus fishermen are consuming the very resource that should yield their catch.
3    When catches of the most valuable fish in the waters of the northern hemisphere, such as turbot and halibut, started to fail, fleets began instead to chase other species that had been thrown back as "trash" only a generation before--whiting, spiny dogfish and others. They also fished distant waters and found massive catches of a few other low-value species. The FAO notes that it was these short-lived catches-___ of fish such as Alaska Pollack, Peruvian anchoveta and Japanese pilchard____that greatly increased the total world catch in the 1980s.
But the true, downward trend in fishing worldwide was masked because these catches were measured in tones, not dollars. Moreover, the world's 3 million or so fishing boats cannot hope for further yields of that kind. There are no more waters and few species that have not been explored. The world's fishermen say they operate at a loss: $22 billion in 1989, not counting capital expenditure or profit from unreported illegal catches.
Almost all the 200 fisheries monitored by the FAO are fully exploited. One in three is depleted or heavily overexploited, almost all in the developed countries. Governments have encouraged this excess, by subsidising fishermen, often as a form of regional aid and in response to failing catches. Although fishermen still catch relatively few of the 15,000 existing species of fish, most of the remainder are expensive to catch, taste bad, or both.
6  Overfishing is not the only threat to the world's fisheries, although it is the most severe. Development and pollution are also reducing fish numbers. According to Paul Brouha, director of the American Fisheries Society, between 11 and 15 million salmon once spawned in the Columbia river system. Now there are only 3 million, of which 2.75 million are spawned artificially. So much of the river system has been dammed that only 250,000 salmon can find their way back to old spawning grounds. According to a recent study, three-quarters of the American catch comprises species that depend upon estuaries (often as a habitat for young fish, which can safely feed in the shallow waters).
7   But estuaries are themselves vulnerable. Almost a third of the world's 5.5 billion people live within 60 kilometres of the sea, polluting inshore waters with effluent from        industry, and farmland. Lagoons and wetlands are filled to make land; mangrove forests are cut down; fresh water is taken in large quantities upstream, affecting the salinity of estuaries and the growth of young fish.
8    For all the damage that they cause, overfishing and pollution rarely lead to extinction  (though even this is possible for a few large, slow-growing and valuable species, such as the bluefin tuna). Nor, at least for many years yet, will fish be off the menu for those who have enough money. Indeed, as the price of fish climbs and biotechnology develops, the most valuable fish will increasingly be farmed. Fish farming, or aquaculture, yielded more than 12 million tones in 1990, and is growing by more than 10% a year. Fin-fish make up almost 70% of the total, shellfish a quarter, and shrimp about 6%. But intensive fish farming tends to damage coastlines. And, though the technology is developing rapidly the FAO doubts whether farmed fish will account for more than 12% of world fish consumption by the end of the century.
9  A fish shortage has other economic and social consequences. Fish prices have been rising since the early 1980s. Fish is the most important source of animal protein in some countries, especially poor ones. Moreover, as overfishing spreads to poorer countries, the effects may be more severe than in the richer ones. This is partly because overfishing threatens to engulf local fisheries mo, re rapidly, and partly because more jobs are at stake: traditional fisheries employ 20 times as many people as the industrial fisheries that are replacing them, according to London's Panos Institute; and fishermen tend to live in places where few other jobs are available.
Questions 1-5
 Based on the information in this reading passage, "Disappearing Fish", indicate the relationship between each of the two items listed below by identifying:
PR     if there is a positive relationship;
NR     if there is a negative relationship;
L/N    if there is little or no relationship,'
NI     if there is no information.
Write the appropriate Letters (PR, NR, L/N, or NI) in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.
     
Example                                              answer                                                          
catch of a particular species   sustainability of that species       NR
1.number of fish                         level of spawning  ______
2. fishing subsidies                      exploitation of fisheries______
3.extent of damming of river               level of natural spawning _______
4.water pollution                        species extinction ______
5.value of a fish species                   success in farming that species_____
3. 从属配对题
从属配对题需要分析两组信息之间的从属关系,包括专家与观点、组织与功能、制造商与产品、时代与事件等。这类配对比较简单,关键词都以AA重现的形式出现。不过,由于题干较短,可能有些题目信息的出现顺序与其在原文中的顺序不一致(乱序),因此建议读者一次做两个题。
解题步骤:
1.仔细阅读题目的要求,搞清选项与题目之间的关系。
2.先把题目从头到尾看一遍,尽可能多的记些关键词。
3.从头到尾快速阅读原文,遇到所记住的关键词或其对应词,当即解答该题。
4.如果关键词是专有名词或很生僻的词,一般在原文出现的就是该词本身,否则会有同义词或同意表述的对应。
注意:
1.大多数情况下,每个题目只能选一个选项。(Note: for some questions you will need to write more than one letter.)如果题目没有类似的要求,应该是每题只能选一个选项。
2. 有的选项可能用不上。
3.第一个的答案往往在文章的后部,最后一题的答案往往在文章前部。
4.注意题目的答题要求。
1     For people who like to keep poultry, ducks offer certain advantages over hens. Ducks are immune to some common diseases found in hens and are less vulnerable to others. Some breeds of duck produce bigger eggs than hens. In addition, ducks lay eggs over a longer season than do hens.
2     Poultry keepers with gardens have less to worry about if they keep ducks rather than hens because the former are less apt to dig up plants and destroy roots. While both hens and ducks benefit the garden by eating pests, hens are known to damage herb and grass beds. Ducks, on the other hand, will search for insects and snails more carefully. Only very delicate plants are at risk from the broad, webbed feet of ducks.
3     While ducks offer many advantages over hens, they must be given greater quantity of food, especially if regular eggs are desired. An adult duck will eat between 170 to 200 grams of food a day. If the ducks have access to grass and a pond, they will be able to find for themselves approximately 70% of their daily dietary, requirements in warmer months but less than half that in colder times. Therefore, it is important that they be fed enough food, such as grain, every day.
4     Experienced duck keepers raise ducklings every three years or so because it is after       this period of time that ducks' egg-laying powers begin to seriously weaken. If the aim is to hatch duckling, keepers should be aware that not all ducks make good mothers, and that certain breeds of duck appear to be worse than others. The poor mothers abandon their eggs a few days after laying them. A sure way of making sure the rejected eggs hatch is to place them next to chicken eggs under a hen.
Questions 1-6
        Classify the characteristics listed below as belonging to:
        D   Ducks
        H   Hens
        or
        NI   if there is no information in the reading passage
        Write the appropriate letters in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
        Example                            Answer
        more vulnerable to illness               H
       1. more eggs per week                __________
       2. lengthier laying period           __________
       3. less likely to uproot plants      __________
       4. dangerous to grass                ___________
       5. eat more grain                    ___________
       6. better mothers                    ___________
          
 
 




 
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